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 DSM -IV Criteria for Autism

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تاريخ التسجيل : 29/12/2010

مُساهمةموضوع: DSM -IV Criteria for Autism   الخميس ديسمبر 30, 2010 12:17 am

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Autistic Disorder


Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. These signs all begin before a child is three years old.[2] Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize; how this occurs is not well understood.[3] It is one of three recognized disorders in the autism spectrum (ASDs), the other two being Asperger syndrome, which lacks delays in cognitive development and language, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (commonly abbreviated as PDD-NOS), which is diagnosed when the full set of criteria for autism or Asperger syndrome are not met.[4]
Autistic Disorder
A. A total of six (or more) items from (1), (2), and
(3), with at least two from (1), and one each from
(2) and (3):
(1) qualitative impairment in social interaction, as
manifested by at least two of the following:
(a) marked impairment in the use of multiple
nonverbal behaviors, such as eye-to-eye gaze,
facial expression, body postures, and gestures to
regulate social interaction
(b) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate
to developmental level
(c) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share
enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other
people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or
pointing out objects of interest)
(d) lack of social or emotional reciprocity
(2) qualitative impairments in communication, as
manifested by at least one of the following:
(a) delay in, or total lack of, the development of
spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt
to compensate through alternative modes of
communication such as gesture or mime)
(b) in individuals with adequate speech, marked
impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a
conversation with others
(c) stereotyped and repetitive use of language or
idiosyncratic language
(d) lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe
play or social imitative play appropriate to
developmental level
(3) restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns
of behavior, interests, and activities as manifested
by at least one of the following:
DSM -IV
Criteria for Autism

(a) encompassing preoccupation with one or more
stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that
is abnormal either in intensity or focus
(b) apparently inflexible adherence to specific,
nonfunctional routines or rituals
(c) stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms
(e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting or complex
whole-body movements)
(d) persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
B. Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of
the following areas, with onset prior to age 3 years:
(1) social interaction,
(2) language as used in social communication, or
(3) symbolic or imaginative play.
C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by
Rett’s disorder or childhood disintegrative disorder.
Asperger’s Disorder
A. Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as
manifested by at least two of the following:
(1) marked impairment in the use of multiple
nonverbal behaviors, such as eye-to-eye gaze,
facial expression, body postures, and gestures to
regulate social interaction
(2) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate
to developmental level
(3) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share
enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other
people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or
pointing out objects of interest to other people)
(4) lack of social or emotional reciprocity
B. Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns
of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested
by at least one of the following:
(1) encompassing preoccupation with one or more
stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that
is abnormal either in intensity or focus
(2) apparently inflexible adherence to specific,
nonfunctional routines or rituals
(3) stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms
(e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex
whole-body movements)
(4) persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
C. The disturbance causes clinically significant
impairment in social, occupational, or other
important areas of functioning.
D. There is no clinically significant general delay in
language (e.g., single words used by age 2 years,
communicative phrases used by age 3 years).
E. There is no clinically significant delay in
cognitive development or in the development of
age-appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behavior
(other than in social interaction), and curiosity
about the environment in childhood.
F. Criteria are not met for another specific
pervasive developmental disorder or schizophrenia.
Rett’s Disorder
A. All of the following:
(1) apparently normal prenatal and perinatal
development
(2) apparently normal psychomotor development
through the first 5 months after birth
(3) normal head circumference at birth
B. Onset of all of the following after the period of
normal development:
(1) deceleration of head growth between ages 5
and 48 months
(2) loss of previously acquired purposeful hand
skills between ages 5 and 30 months with the
subsequent development of stereotyped hand
movements (i.e., hand-wringing or hand washing)
(3) loss of social engagement early in the course
(although often social interaction develops later)
(4) appearance of poorly coordinated gait or trunk
movements
(5) severely impaired expressive and receptive
language development with severe psychomotor
retardation
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
A. Apparently normal development for at least
the first 2 years after birth as manifested by the
presence of age-appropriate verbal and nonverbal
communication, social relationships, play, and
adaptive behavior.
B. Clinically significant loss of previously acquired
skills (before age 10 years) in at least two of the
following areas:
(1) expressive or receptive language
(2) social skills or adaptive behavior
(3) bowel or bladder control
(4) play
(5) motor skills
C. Abnormalities of functioning in at least two of the
following areas:
(1) qualitative impairment in social interaction
(e.g., impairment in nonverbal behaviors, failure
to develop peer relationships, lack of social or
emotional reciprocity)
(2) qualitative impairments in communication
(e.g., delay or lack of spoken language, inability to
initiate or sustain a conversation, stereotyped and
repetitive use of language, lack of varied makebelieve
play)
(3) restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns
of behavior, interests, and activities, including
motor stereotypies and mannerisms
D. The disturbance is not better accounted for by
another specific pervasive developmental disorder
or by schizophrenia.
List of Commonly Used Acronyms
(Autism Alphabet Soup)

The Alphabet Soup of Special Education can make it
difficult for a parent to understand the process. Here
are the most commonly used acronyms:
AC = Augmentative Communication
ABA = Applied Behavior Analysis – a research-based
approach to treatment
ABIX = Area Board IX for Developmental Disabilities
ADA = Americans With Disabilities Act – legislation that
can help you get services
ADD = Attention Deficit Disorder – have a hard time
staying on task
ADHD = Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – excess
physical activity and difficulty staying on task
AHA = American Hyperlexia Association
AIT = Auditory Integration Therapy
ARC = Association for Retarded Citizens – 50 year old
organization for people with disabilities and their families
APD = Auditory Processing Disorder
AS = Asperger’s Syndrome – a type of high-functioning autism
ASA = Autism Society of America – National organization
ASASB = Autism Society of America, Santa Barbara
Chapter – local chapter
ASD = Autism Spectrum Disorder – a type of brain dysfunction
ASHA = American Speech – Language Hearing Assoc.
ASL = American Sign Language – communicate with your
hands, not words
AT= Assistive Technology – devices that help you, like
keyboards or wheelchairs
CAN = Cure Autism Now – an organization dedicated to
finding a cure for autism
CAPD = Central Auditory Processing Disorder
CDD = Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
CP = Cerebral Palsy
DAN! = Defeat Autism Now! – a project that focuses on
biomedical research and treatment
DD = Developmentally Disabled or Developmentally
Delayed – not meeting all the typical milestones
DDS = Department of Developmental Services
DIR= Developmental/Individual Differences/Relationshipbased
Approach
(also known as Floortime or Greenspan Model)
DIS = Designated Instructional Service
DOB = Date of Birth
DS = Down Syndrome
DSI = Dysfunction of Sensory Integration - another
acronym for SID
DTT = Discrete Trial Teaching – a type of teaching
technique used in ABA.
DX = Diagnosis or Disorder – what the specialist says you have
ECSE = Early Childhood Special Education
EFA = Essential Fatty Acids – parts of our food that help us think
EBD = Emotional and Behavioral Disorder
EI = Early Intervention (also Early Start) – therapies
provided to children under 3 years old
ENT = Ear, Nose and Throat
ESY = Extended School Year – school programming
during the summer break
FAPE = Free Appropriate Public Education
FC = Facilitated Communication
FRAXA = Fragile X Syndrome
GAD = Generalized Anxiety Disorder
GDD = Global Developmental Delays
GF/CF = Gluten-Free/Casein-Free diet (wheat and dairy)
HFA = High Functioning Autism – can talk, get dressed,
etc., but not good socially
HI = Hearing Impaired
HOH = Hard Of Hearing
ID = Intellectual Disability – hard time figuring things out
IDEA = Individuals With Disabilities Education Act
– legislation that can get you services
IEP = Individualized Education Program – plan for what
services or accommodations your child will receive
IFSP = Individualized Family Service Plan
IQ = Intelligence Quotient – how well you did on a
standardized test
LD = Learning Disability
LEA = Local Education Agency (usually the school district)
LEAP = Learning Enrichment Autism Program
LFA = Low Functioning Autism – needs lots of help to get by
LKS = Landau-Kleffner Syndrome - a form of aphasia with
seizure-like activity
LRE = Least Restrictive Environment – give the child the
most freedom possible
MBD = Minimal Brain Dysfunction (another name AD(H)D
has been known by)
MD = Muscular Dystrophy
MH = Multiply Handicapped – more than one diagnosis or
disorder
MR = Mental Retardation
MRI = Magnetic Resonance Imaging – a way to scan the
brain to see activity
NICU = Neonatal Intensive Care Unit – hospital
department for very sick newborn babies
NLD = Nonverbal Learning Disability
NT = Neurologically Typical (developing normally)
O2 = Oxygen
OCD = Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder – can’t stop
certain behaviors
ODD = Oppositional Defiant Disorder
OHI = Other Health Impairment
OI = Orthopedic Impairment
OT = Occupational Therapy or Occupational Therapist
PAI = Protection and Advocacy, Inc. (free legal advocacy
service provided by the State)
PDD = Pervasive Developmental Disorders (the category
of disorders encompassing autism)
PDD-NOS = Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not
Otherwise Specified
PECS = Picture Exchange Communication System
PICU = Pediatric Intensive care Unit
PRT = Pivotal Response Treatment – works on improving
“pivotal behaviors” like motivation
PT = Physical Therapy or Physical Therapist
PTSD = Post Traumatic Stress Disorder – aftermath of a
frightening experience
RDI = Relationship Development Intervention
RTI = Response to Intervention
SBCEO = Santa Barbara County Education Office
SC = Service Coordinator (case mgr from TCRC)
SI = Sensory Integration – therapies that help balance and
sensitivities
SID = Sensory Integration Dysfunction
SLD = Specific Learning Disability
SLI = Speech/Language Impairment
SLP = Speech Language Pathologist
SPD = Semantic-Pragmatic Disorder
SPED = Special Education
SSA = Social Security Administration
SSD = Social Security Disability
SSI = Supplemental Security Income
ST = Speech Therapy
TBI = Traumatic Brain Injury
TCRC = Tri-Counties Regional Center – local distributor
of services for people with developmental disabilities
TEACCH = Treatment and Education of Autistic and
Related Communication Handicapped Children
TS = Tourette Syndrome – blurt out phrases, involuntary tics
TX = Treatment or Therapy
UA = Unlocking Autism
UCP = United Cerebral Palsy Association
VI = Visual Impairment – can’t see very well
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REFERENCES
DSM4 [url=http://www.asasb.org/PDFs/AccessGuide/CriteriaForAutism.pdf Autism DSM4]DSAM4 pdf.[/url]
Autism definitionautism definition
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: DSM -IV Criteria for Autism   السبت يناير 01, 2011 3:31 am

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: DSM -IV Criteria for Autism   السبت يناير 22, 2011 3:05 pm

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: DSM -IV Criteria for Autism   السبت مارس 05, 2011 12:22 pm

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: DSM -IV Criteria for Autism   السبت مارس 05, 2011 9:57 pm

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: DSM -IV Criteria for Autism   الإثنين مارس 07, 2011 3:48 pm

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: DSM -IV Criteria for Autism   الإثنين مارس 07, 2011 4:40 pm

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DSM -IV Criteria for Autism
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